CONTEXT AND JUSTIFICATION
- Blood transfusion is an important component of health care. It saves millions of human lives every year, in both routine and emergency situations. It facilitates complex medical and surgical interventions and dramatically improves the quality and life expectancy of patients with all kinds of acute and chronic conditions.
- The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that meeting a nation's basic blood needs requires 1-3% of the population to be blood donors and recommends that blood safety be based on donation. voluntary unpaid blood. Currently, in Cameroon, transfusion needs are estimated at 400,000 blood bags necessary to treat patients annually in health facilities. Blood and labile blood products represent for the latter the best therapeutic offer. However, only barely 15% of blood needs are met each year. The insufficiency or even the absence of safe blood products is therefore responsible for:
- 4 0% of maternal mortality (comp hemorrhagic lications);
- Numerous deaths of children under 5 (anemia);
- Insufficient care for chronically ill patients whose treatment depends on blood products: hemodialysis patients, hemophiliacs;
- Insufficient immediate care for victims of disasters: road accidents, victims of terrorist attacks, etc.
The causes related to this situation are as follows:
- Lack of a national blood transfusion system organized around a National Blood Transfusion Center and its specialized structures as provided for in the law of December 22, 2003 governing blood transfusion in Cameroon;
- Insufficient technical and regulatory normative framework for blood transfusion;
- Lack of a reliable system for recruiting voluntary blood donors from the population;
- Insufficient staff trained in blood transfusion;
- Very limited financial support for blood transfusion.
- The project to strengthen the national blood transfusion system funded by the Islamic Development Bank aims to set up in Cameroon a modern blood transfusion system capable of contributing to the optimal and harmonious functioning of the health system.
The general objective of the project is to contribute to the reduction of mortality and morbidity linked to the absence of safe blood. Specifically, it is:
- To ensure universal access and use of safe and quality blood;
- To promote a social environment favorable to blood transfusion.
The expected results of the project are:
- The existence of national standards for blood transfusion structures (including the policy for financing the activities of regional and national blood transfusion centers) and basic technical capacities;
- The existence by 2022 of four (4) Regional Blood Transfusion Centers (CRTS) and one (1) National Blood Transfusion Center (CNTS);
- The existence of robust community outreach programs;
- Capacity of health care services strengthened to store and rationally use blood products.
The project, which is spread over a period of four (04) years, has 03 main components:
- Strengthening the institutional framework for an effective blood transfusion system;
- The establishment of a recruitment system for voluntary blood donors;
- Establishment of operational Blood Transfusion structures.
- In Cameroon, more than 90% of blood donations made come from family or replacement or paid donors who present a risk of infection transmissible by blood transfusion. Barely 10% are voluntary donors.
- As part of the implementation of the activities of component 2 of the project, WHO is requesting a study to assess the national blood donor recruitment system. This evaluation is a prerequisite for the effective establishment of a recruitment program for voluntary donors in Cameroon. It is intended to provide MINSANTE with the information necessary for the effective establishment of a recruitment program for voluntary donors.
THE SCOPE OF EVALUATION
- The evaluation covers all the interventions, activities and initiatives carried out by the various actors for the recruitment of blood donors. It also extends to interventions implemented at all levels of the health system (PNTS, Blood Transfusion Center / FOSA blood bank), within the community by associations working for blood donation and other CSOs. , within companies, ministries, etc.
OBJECTIVES AND EXPECTED RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION
- Evaluate the current blood donor recruitment system based on the standards and successful experiences of African countries similar to Cameroon and Western countries with an efficient blood transfusion system in order to provide key actors with the information necessary for the identification of orientations , priority interventions and activities for the effective establishment of a blood donor recruitment program / system making it possible to obtain “100%” of voluntary blood donors.
- present the current system at structural, organizational and operational levels;
- identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, constraints of the current system;
- Carry out a comparative analysis of the current system in relation to the standards for the recruitment of blood donors and the experiences of African countries similar to Cameroon and Western countries which have succeeded in the transition to “100%” of voluntary donors;
- formulate recommendations, interventions and priority actions capable of guiding the establishment of a blood donor recruitment program / system allowing to ultimately obtain 100% of voluntary blood donors;
- propose a skeleton program / system for recruiting blood donors.
The final evaluation report of the national blood donor recruitment system is produced and available. It includes at least the following elements:
- A documented report on the current blood donor recruitment system in Cameroon as well as the gaps in relation to standards (organization, functioning, operational) is drawn up;
- the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the current blood donor recruitment system are identified;
- a comparative report with at least one African country similar to Cameroon which has succeeded in the bet of at least “80%” of voluntary donors with the gaps is drawn up;
- recommendations, interventions and priority actions capable of guiding the establishment of a blood donor recruitment program / system making it possible to ultimately obtain 100% of voluntary blood donors in Cameroon are proposed.
- A proposal for a skeleton program / system for recruiting blood donors is made.
THE QUESTIONS TO BE DEALED
The questions that the evaluation should be able to answer are questions addressed to evaluate the entire national blood donor recruitment system:
- How is the recruitment of blood donors organized and how does it work?
- Who are the actors at all levels of the health system, within the community, public institution?
- What are the identified strengths of the current system?
- What are the identified weaknesses of the current system?
- What are the threats influencing the current system?
- What are the opportunities that will make it possible to define new orientations for the establishment of a donor recruitment program / system that will ultimately lead to 100% voluntary donors?
- What are the gaps in the current system compared to standards and similar systems that have successfully made the transition to “100%” of voluntary donors?
- What are the recruitment pools for blood donors?
- What are the priority strategies to be implemented in order to reach 100% voluntary donors?
APPROACH AND EVALUATION METHODS
The consultant will propose his methodology.
This approach will involve:
- reviews of documents or reports prepared within the framework of the current blood donor recruitment system, then analyze the available data in order to produce the necessary information on the system;
- interviews with the actors involved in the recruitment of blood donors at all levels (central, regional, district / community, companies, etc.);
- Review of the various international recommendations on the recruitment of blood donors
- The review of the successful experiences of transitioning to “100%” of voluntary donations from countries similar to Cameroon on the sociological, economic, health levels etc;
- Documentary review to determine the gaps in the recruitment of blood donors;
- Interviews with stakeholders (population, blood bank managers) to collect the challenges encountered in recruiting blood donors (field visits);
- Discussions with stakeholders to identify priority interventions and activities for the establishment of a recruitment system to ultimately produce 100% of voluntary donors (dialogue)
Types of data to collect for analysis and report writing
- The quantitative and qualitative data to be collected will be both primary and secondary.
Potential sources of data and information collection
These include, among others:
- National blood transfusion policy;
- Strategic plan for blood transfusion 2015-2019;
- Annual reports of transfusion activities in Cameroon from 2014 to 2017 available;
- Activity reports of blood transfusion centers;
- Reports of CSOs involved in promoting blood donation and organizing blood drives;
- The beneficiaries of support from the Government and technical and financial partners (PTF) in the field of blood transfusion;
- Summaries of key informants;
- Reports from research structures / institutions including student theses and dissertations;
- Scientific publications relating to blood transfusion in Cameroon.
- Participation is open to equal opportunity to any natural or legal person at the international level , and offers may be presented in English or French.
- The consultant should enjoy complete integrity and independence. It must therefore be impartial and be independent of any structure that participated in the project.
- A minimum of 8 (08) years professional experience in the evaluation of community-based health interventions;
- Have experience in social mobilization in favor of blood donation;
- Have experience working with health programs and donors working in the health field;
- Have had experience in communication for behavior change in the health field;
- Computer skills are recommended.
- Hold at least a master's degree or equivalent in the field of biomedical sciences, transfusion medicine, social sciences (sociology, medical anthropology), communication or social mobilization
- Communication: excellent ability to present orally and in writing
- Teamwork: excellent ability to work in a team with people of different profiles
- Great capacity for analysis and proposal
- Results-oriented: great motivation and commitment to translate the results of the inventory into operational strategy
- Good knowledge of the Cameroonian health system
- Good knowledge of the organization and functioning of CSOs involved in the health sector
- Have a good knowledge of French or English, spoken and written. Be able to communicate in both languages.